1. Duplication method The laser beam is repeatedly irradiated to a fixed point of the workpiece with a certain shape and accuracy. In the direction perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, there is no relative displacement between the beam and the workpiece. The replication method includes single pulse and multiple pulses. At present, the multi-pulse method is generally used, which can minimize the lateral diffusion of energy on the workpiece and help control the size and shape of the hole. The millisecond pulse width allows enough heat to diffuse along the axial direction of the hole, not just absorbed by the material surface. The laser beam shape can be obtained using an optical system. If a hole bar of a desired shape is placed in the focused beam or in front of the lens, a special-shaped hole can be punched.
2. The shape of the surface processed by the contour detour method is determined by the relative displacement of the laser beam and the workpiece.
When using the contour detour method, the laser can work in both pulsed and continuous states. In the pulse mode, the holes are continuously superimposed on each other with a certain amount of displacement, thereby forming a continuous outline. With contour machining, the hole can be enlarged to a cross section with any shape.
Laser drilling equipment 1. Laser drilling laser The laser is an important part of laser drilling equipment. Its main function is to convert the electrical energy provided by the power supply system into laser energy with a certain conversion efficiency. According to the material properties of the laser, it can be divided into gas lasers and solid-state lasers. The gas lasers used for drilling are mainly carbon dioxide lasers, while the solid lasers used for drilling are mainly ruby lasers, neodymium glass lasers and YAG lasers.
Carbon dioxide laser has many unique advantages. Its conversion efficiency is higher than other lasers, and it can be absorbed by many non-metal materials (such as plexiglass, plastic, wood, multilayer composite sheet, quartz glass, etc.). More importantly, compared with other lasers, CO2 lasers can output high power. When combined with other technologies, high-speed drilling can be achieved, with a maximum speed of 100 holes / second, which is difficult for other lasers.
However, because of the inconvenience of focusing and dimming the carbon dioxide laser, the one-time investment of the equipment is relatively large, and it is not as common in the laser drilling equipment as the other three laser applications.
Solid-state lasers are widely used in laser drilling because of their unique advantages. Its main advantages are: (1) The output wavelength is short. (2) The output light can be transmitted with ordinary optical materials. (3) The machine is small in size, easy to use and maintain, and less expensive than a carbon dioxide laser.
2. Laser punching machine tool The simple and versatile form of laser punching machine tool is three-dimensional machine tool. The two-dimensional motion is represented by X and Y in the horizontal plane, the two coordinate axes are perpendicular to each other, and the third Z axis is perpendicular to the ZY plane. Each dimension can be driven by a stepper motor to run on a linear ball guide, and its accuracy is determined by the accuracy of the screw and the accuracy of the ball guide. If equipped with a microprocessor system, the three-dimensional machine tool can complete laser processing
of various holes in the plane and group holes in a certain range. When a series of holes need to be processed in a pipe or barrel material, the machine tool should have a five-dimensional function. In addition to the three-dimensional mentioned above, the added two-dimensional is a 360-degree rotation of the XY plane. We define it as the A axis, XY The plane is inclined at 0-90 degrees in the Z direction, and we define it as the B axis. With such various types of laser drilling processing, the five-dimensional worktable can be competent. In the case of saving equipment investment, the CNC of the B axis can be changed to manual. This will not only save money, but also basically complete all punching tasks.
3. Laser punching machine equipment In recent years, the level of laser punching machine at home and abroad is at a stage of rapid development. The laser output power is gradually increasing, the pulse width is getting narrower, the frequency range is getting wider, other parameters Increasingly, the development direction is conducive to punching. The flexibility of the light guide system and the control part of the laser punching machine is constantly improved, which makes the range of punching constantly expand. At present, there are dozens of types of laser drills in China. In addition to colleges and universities and scientific research institutes, companies that specialize in manufacturing laser equipment
have gradually increased. This shows that China's laser processing
is developing towards industrialization.