Since the first laser was born in the 1960s, after decades of development, laser processing
technology has been combined with multiple disciplines to form multiple application technology fields. At present, the main laser processing technologies include: laser cutting, laser welding
, laser marking, laser drilling, laser heat treatment, laser rapid prototyping, laser coating, etc. Laser processing
technology is a comprehensive high-tech technology that intersects disciplines such as optics, materials science, engineering, mechanical manufacturing, numerical control technology, and electronic technology. Due to the inherent four characteristics of laser, it is widely used in industry and agriculture , Defense, medicine, and scientific experiments.
So far, the world has opened up a laser processing
market led by the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries or regions. Laser processing
technology is developing at an unprecedented speed and has become an advanced processing and manufacturing technology in the 21st century. An emerging high-tech industry.
Laser cutting technology is an important application of laser technology in industry. It has become the most laser processing
method in the current industrial field, which can account for more than 70% of the entire laser processing
. Laser cutting has been widely used in modern industry for its advantages such as wide cutting range, high cutting speed, narrow slit, good cutting quality, small heat affected zone, and large processing flexibility. It has also become the most mature in laser processing
technology. Technology one.
There are many types of lasers used for laser processing
, and new lasers are constantly being developed. The lasers
currently used for laser processing and
manufacturing mainly include CO2 lasers, Nd: YAG lasers, excimer lasers, high-power semiconductor lasers, and fiber lasers. Among them, high-power CO2 lasers and Nd: YAG lasers are widely used in laser processing of
large-scale workpieces; medium- and small-power CO2 lasers and Nd: YAG lasers are widely used in precision machining; excimer lasers are mostly used in micro-machining. Compared with the thermal diffusion of materials, short-pulse lasers can inject energy into the irradiation site faster, so they are mainly used in ultra-fine laser processing
; semiconductor lasers are the smallest lasers of all lasers. They have been used in laser communication, laser storage, and laser measurement. Distance and other aspects have been widely used; fiber lasers based on optical fibers have obvious advantages in reducing thresholds, oscillating wavelength ranges, and wavelength tunability. They have become emerging technologies in the laser field and one of many hot research topics. Like traditional solid and gas lasers, fiber lasers are composed of three basic elements: a pump source, a gain medium, and a resonant cavity. The pump source generally uses a high-power semiconductor laser. The gain medium is a rare-earth-doped fiber or a common nonlinear fiber. The resonant cavity can be composed of various linear resonant cavities by optical feedback elements such as fiber gratings, or various rings can be formed by couplers. Resonant cavity. The pump light is coupled into the gain fiber through an appropriate optical system. After the pump fiber absorbs the pump light, it forms a particle number inversion or a non-linear gain to generate spontaneous emission. After the generated spontaneous radiation is subjected to excitation amplification and mode selection of the resonant cavity, a stable laser output is finally formed.
From the analysis of current domestic applications, laser cutting machines are
widely used in low-carbon steel plates less than 12 mm thick, stainless steel plates less than 6 mm thick, and non-metallic materials less than 20 mm thick. For the cutting of three-dimensional space curves, they are used in automotive and aviation It is also beginning to find applications in industry. Laser cutting machine
is a comprehensive technical equipment of optical-mechanical integration. The parameters of the laser beam, the performance and accuracy of the machine and the CNC system directly affect the efficiency and quality of laser cutting. Therefore, in the development and practical application of laser cutting equipment, we must master and solve key technologies including cutting perforation, cutting speed and plate thickness matching relationship, air flow control technology, focus position control, and so on.